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2013大学英语四六级考试语法精要(7)

2013-03-29 10:32新东方四六级微信号

  4. 平行结构

  在英语中,当两个或两个以上的同等成分(主语,谓语,宾语,表语,定语,状语,宾语补足语等)并列时,要求它们的词性或结构相同,即名词对名词,介词短语对介词短语,分词对分词,句子对句子等等。这就是英语的平行结构准则。一般在使用并列连词如and, but, or, neither … nor, either … or, not only .. but also, both … and, more(less) … than, as well as,rather… than等时,要注意不要违反平行结构准则。

  He likes watching TV more than reading books.

  The soldier preferred to die rather than surrender.

  We saw Tom walking towards the river, taking off his clothes and plunging into the water.

  Censorship prevents a movie from being shown or a book being sold.

  5. 反意疑问句

  在具体运用反意疑问句时应注意以下几点:

  1) 如果陈述句部分是一个含有宾语从句的复杂句,则反意疑问部分的谓语动词和主语代词要与主句的谓语动词和主语相对应。

  He never said she would come, did he?

  You told me I had passed the exam, didn’t you?

  但是如果陈述句部分是 “I (don’t) think, believe, suppose, imagine, expect, fancy, reckon等+宾语从句”的结构时,反意疑问部分的谓语动词和主语代词要与宾语从句的谓语动词和主语相对应,并且要注意否定的转移。

  I suppose you are not serious, are you?

  She imagines that people like her, don’t they?

  I don’t believe she knows it, does she? (因don’t的否定意义后移而不用doesn’t)

  I didn’t expect she would come, would she? (因didn’t的否定意义后移而不用wouldn’t)

  2) 如果陈述句部分是祈使句,则反意疑问部分一般用“will you”。在否定祈使句后还是用“will you”。

  Read the text, will you?

  Don’t be late, will you?

  如果陈述句部分是以Let’s开头的祈使句,则反意疑问部分一般用“shall we”;如果是以Let us开头的祈使句,则反意疑问部分一般用“will you”。

  Let’s have a party tonight, shall we?

  Let us go home, will you?

  3) 如果陈述句部分带有never, nothing, nowhere, hardly, scarcely, seldom, rarely, barely, little, few等否定词或半否定词,反意疑问部分的动词要用肯定式。

  You can hardly believe this, can you?

  He has few good reasons for staying, has he?

  6. 词序

  当多个形容词共同修饰一个名词时,在意义上同名词关系最密切的词最靠近该名词,其排列次序为“A + B + C + D + E + F + G + 被修饰的名词”。其中:A. 表示年龄、新旧的形容词,如old, young等。B. 表示大小、长短、高低、重量的形容词,如little, big, long, heavy等。 C. 表示形态、形状的形容词,如round, square等。D. 表示颜色的形容词,如red, white, green等。E. 表示国籍、地区、出处的形容词,如British, southern, Italian等。F. 表示物质、材料的形容词,如wooden, rocky等。G. 表示用途、类别、目的、与…有关等的形容词,也包括起形容词作用的名词和分词,如medical, writing, geography等。其他形容词放在上述A类形容词之前。例如:

  a small round brown wooden table

  a useless, old, big, heavy, red geography book

  a valuable old French writing desk

  a strong young Chinese boy student

  7. 一些特殊的句型

  1) there is no point in doing sth.

  该句型意为“做…是无济于事的/没有什么用的”。可以用very little 或not much等来代替no。其中的point是不可数名词,作“目的”、“用处”解。

  There is very little point in arguing with him.

  2) have difficulty (or trouble) in doing sth.

  该句型意为“做…有困难”。其中的in可以省略;其中的difficulty和trouble是不可数名词,不能有复数形式。也可以用there is difficulty(or trouble) in doing sth.表达相同的意思。

  There was little difficulty in finding him.

  3) keep (sb. or sth. ) busy doing sth.

  该句型意为“使…一直忙着做某事”。需注意的是虽然busy with doing sth.和busy in doing sth.都是正确的,但考题中常考busy doing sth.句型。但如果busy后面跟的是名词,则要用busy with sth.。

  We are busy preparing for the examination.

  4) feel like doing sth.

  该句型意为“想做某事”,且feel like后只能跟动名词,而不能跟动词不定式。此外,feel like后还可跟名词或代词,表示“想要某物”。

  I was so angry that I felt like throwing something at him.

  I feel like beer tonight.

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