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英语四级语法题考点经典总结

2013-03-29 20:17新东方四六级微信号

  从以上各题来看,考查的侧重点有:

  (1)状语类别的判断

  不同的状语对非谓语动词的要求不同,目的状语要求用不定式,如②。

  (2)非谓语动词与句子属于之间的逻辑关系

  根据主谓关系或动宾关系的不同来确定用现在分词还是用过去分词。

  (3)非谓语动词的否定形式

  not否定非谓语动词时置于非谓语动词之前,如③。

  (4) 独立成分

  有些非谓语动词的使用不受与句子主语关系的限制,称为独立成分,这类成 分只记忆即可。如:

  generally speaking, judging from..., to tell the truth..., 等。

  5) 做补足语的非谓语动词的选择

  做宾语补足语的非谓语动词受谓语动词的限制,不同动词后的宾语补足语形式要求不同。近几年对各类宾补都有考查。如:

  ① They are going to have the service man ____ an electric fan in the office tomorrow.(1998.1)

  A. install   B. to install   C. to be installed   D. installed

  ② After a few rounds of talks, both sides regarded the territory

  dispute ______.(1998.6)

  A. being settled   B. to be settled   C. had settled   D. as settled

  ③ You will see this product ____ wherever you go.(2000.6)

  A. to be advertised   B. advertised   C. advertise   D. advertising

  ④ His remarks left me _____ about his real purpose.(1999.6)

  A. wondered   B. wonder   C. to wonder   D. wondering

  ⑤ When I caught him ______ me I stopped buying things there and started dealing with another shop.(1997.1)

  A. cheating   B. cheat   C. to cheat   D. to be cheating

  ⑥ The sale usually takes place outside the house, with the

  audience _____ on benches, chairs or boxes.(2000.1)

  A. having seated   B. seating   C. seated   D. having been seated

  考查涉及到

  感官动词后的宾语补足语,如③。

  have, make, let, leave等特殊单词后的宾语补足语。

  regard类后面的宾语补足语

  with独立分句后面的

  常用动词后面的宾语补足语。

  6) 做表语的非谓语动词的选择

  表语的考查多侧重于分词做表语形式的选择,很少有动名词的用法的考查,虽然选项中有不定式作为干扰项,只要能看出是做表语的也就不用考虑。如:

  ① The house was very quiet, ____ as it was on the side of the

  mountain.(1999.6)

  A. isolated   B. isolating   C. being isolated   D. having been isolated

  ② These surveys indicate that many crimes go _____ by the police,mainly because not all victims report them.(2000.6)

  A. unrecorded   B. to be unrecorded   C. unrecording   D. to have been unrecorded

  分词做表语可以做系动词be的表语,也可以做其它系动词的表语,如go, feel,seem, look, remain等等。这些系动词后非谓语动词的饿用法规则是相同的。

  7) to作为介词与作为不定式符号的选择

  to可以是介词,也可以用来引导不定式,四级考试中对种类用法的考查也比较多。如:

  ① I have no objection _______ your story again.(2000.6)

  A. to hear   B. to hearing   C. to having heard   D. to have heard

  ② The traditional approach ____ with complex problems is to break down into smaller, more easily managed problems.(1996.6)

  A. to dealing   B. in dealing   C. dealing   D. to deal

  ③ The man in the corner confessed to _____ a lie to the manager

  of the company.(1997.6)

  A. have told   B. be told   C. being told   D. having told

  这类考题的考查方式有两种,一是四个选项中有两个相对的选项to do something 和 to doing something,这时考查的自然是to的性质;另一种是to在题干中,如③。

  8) 分词前连词的使用

  分词前连词的使用是为了使分词的作用更加明了,使考生更加准确地理解试题。考查有两种情况

  (1)根据连词选择适当的分词形式

  Michael used to look hurt and surprised when ______.(1995.1)

  A. scolding   B. to scold   C. having scolded   D. scolded

  when的使用说明非谓语动词做时间状语,答案不可能是B,从scold与句子主语间的逻辑关系来看,应该是动宾关系,答案应该是D。

  (2)根据状语的功能选择不同的连词

  Careful surveys have indicated that as many as 50 percent of

  patient do not take drugs ___ directed.(1996.1)

  A. like   B. so   C. which   D. as

  由上下文的意思可以看出,分词所做的是方式状语,连词应该是as。

  9) 非谓语动词的体

  非谓语动词中分词的体有完成体和进行体,即having done, having been done和being done,完成体只用于做状语的场合,而进行体可以用于做定语和做补足语。

  动名词的体也有having done, having been done和 being done的结构主要用于做主语和宾语的场合。

  不定式的体有to be doing 和to have done,主要用于pretend, happen, seem, appear, be said to等结构中。如:

  ① The man in the corner confessed to _____ a lie to the manager of the company.(1997.6)

  A. have told   B. be told   C. being told   D. having told

  having told在句中做介词宾语,表示动作发生在谓语动词之前。

  ② I'd rather read than watch television; the programs seem ____ all the time.(1997.1)

  A. to get worse   B. to be getting worse   C. to have got worse   D. getting worse

  从all the time的使用可以推断get worse是一个渐变过程,所以用不定式的进行体。

  ③ The speech _____ a lively discussion started.(1995.1)

  A. being delivered   B. was delivered   C. be delivered   D. having been delivered

  该结构属于独立主格结构做时间状语,状语分词所表示的动作发生在谓语动词之前,所以应该用完成体,答案为D

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