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英语四级语法题考点经典总结

2013-03-29 20:17新东方四六级微信号

  (1)做定语时

  做定语的可以是动名词、分词或不定式。动名词做前置定语,所构成的大多为固定短语,四级考试一般不涉及。主要考查分词和不定式做定语。分词或不定式做定语一般做后置定语。

  ① The project ____ by the end of 2000, will expand the city's

  telephone network to cover 1,000,000 users.

  A. accomplished   B. being accomplished   C. to be accomplished   D. having been accomplished

  ② Hard work ____ on time will lead to better grades.(1995.1)

  A. done   B. be done   C. having done   D. to have been done

  ③ As early as 1647 Ohio made a decision that free, tax-supported schools must be established in every town _____ 50 households

  or more.(1998.1)

  A. having   B. to have  C. to have had   D. having had

  ④ Those _____ to the conference were mostly famous scientists.

  A. invited   B. were invited   C. inviting   D. to invite

  做定语的非谓语动词有一下几种形式:

  "doing 结构":分词与中心词之间是主谓关系,表示正在进行,或状态。如③

  "being done结构":分词与中心词之间是动宾关系,表示被动和正在进行,如:No one is to enter the building being repaired.

  "to be done结构":不定式与中心词之间是动宾关系,表示将来和被动,如①。

  "done结构":分词与中心词之间是动宾关系,表示被动、完成或一般,如②④。

  "to do结构":不定式与中心词之间是主谓关系,表示将来。如:The professor to give us a speech tomorrow is said to have compiled many scientific works.

  完成形式不能做定语,包括分词的完成形式和不定式的完成形式。

  (2)做状语

  做状语的可以是不定式,也可以是分词。大体结构有:

  "doing 结构":分词与句子主语为主谓关系,表示与谓语动词同时发生,或基本上同时发生,或是同时存在的状态。如:

  ______ the earth to be flat, many feared that Columbus would fall off the edge of the earth.

  A. Having believed   B. Believing   C. Believed   D. Being believed

  "done结构":只要分词与句子主语间是动宾关系就可以用过去分词,可以表示完成,可以表示正在进行,也可以表示条件。如:

  _______ in this way, the situation doesn't seem so disappointing.

  A. Too look at   B. Looking at   C. Looked at   D. To be looked at (2000.1)

  He came in, followed by a group of reporters.

  "having done结构":分词与句子主语是主谓关系,切发生在谓语动词之前。Having seen the film already, I declined his invitation to go to the cinema.

  "having been done结构":该结构表示完成被动,即分词与句子主语之间是动宾关系,切发生在谓语动词之前。如:Having been showed many times, he still didn't understand the operation of the machine.

  "to do 结构":这是不定式结构,在句中可以做目的状语,也可以做结果状语,但不定式动作总是发生在谓语动词之后。如:

  _______ a teacher in a university, it is necessary to have at least a master's degree.

  A. To become   B. Become   C. One becomes   D. On becoming

  表结果时一般为固定结构,如too …to…, enough to….,或是表示出乎意料的结果,常可加构成only to的结构。如:

  I did what I could to comfort her only to make her cry even more. The next day, she woke to find herself in hospital.

  "being done结构":该结构表示被动与正在进行,一般置于句首,表示原因。如:Being chased by some spies, he hid himself in the grass.

  (2)做表语

  测试中对表语的考查主要侧重在现在分词与过去分词的区别上,所以对于做表语的非谓语动词,主要看分词与句子主语之间的关系。做表语的分词一般只有doing和done两种形式。现在分词表示做表语的与主语是主谓关系;过去分词表示做表语的与主语之间是动宾关系。根据使用规律,如果主语是无生命名词,则表语分词为现在分词;如果主语是有生命名词,以过去分词居多,但也可以用现在分词,但意思不同。如:

  How disappointed he felt at the result of the election. (他感到失望)

  How disappointing he is. He should have failed in such an election. (他令人失望)

  可接表语的系动词很多,除be外还有remain, feel, look, appear, seem, get, become, go。

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