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英语四级语法题考点经典总结

2013-03-29 20:17新东方四六级微信号

  (3)做补足语

  一般做宾补的非谓语动词动词的形式选择与其它成分中的非谓语动词形式选择规则基本相同。 doing结构:分词与宾语构成主谓关系,表正在进行。

  When I caught him ____ me I stopped buying things there and

  started dealing with another shop.

  A. cheating   B. cheat   C. to cheat   D. to be cheating

  done结构:分词与宾语构成动宾关系,表示被动与完成。

  Don't get your schedule _____;stay with us in this class.(1996.1)

  A. to change   B. changing   C. changed   D. change

  to do 结构:不定式表示将来,如wish somebody to do, expect somebody to do, arrange for somebody to do等等。

  being done结构:表示被动和正在进行, watch the flag being raised

  Corn originated in the New World and thus was not known in Europe

  until Columbus found it _____ in Cuba.(2000.1)

  A. being cultivated B. been cultivated

  C. having cultivated D. cultivating

  to be done结构:用语表示将来与被动,一般用语主谓关系时可用to做宾补的动词后,如:want something to be done, order something to be done 完成形式不能做宾补。

  4) 注意分析非谓语动词做什么状语

  不同的状语对非谓语动词的要求不同,如表示目的只能是不定式,另外,测试中也常有选择非谓语动词前连词的试题。因此,同学们应注意根据状语与句子间的关系,判断连词的使用。

  5) 注意不定式的特殊句式

  不定式在做定语和做状语时都有其特殊句式,注意这些句式的特点,考试中就会少走一点弯路。如:

  have something to do类:

  这类结构相当于汉语的连动结构,即"有事要做","买东西吃","借书看"等。

  a room in which to live类:

  该类结构是a room to live in 的变体。但如果不熟悉这个结构,考试中则难以决断。如:

  You will want two trees about ten feet apart, from _____ to suspend your tent.(1998.1)

  A. there   B. them   C. which   D. where

  The professor could hardly find sufficient grounds _____ his arguments in favor of the new theory.(2000.6)

  A. to be based on   B. to base on   C. which to base on   D. on which to base

  the first to do

  该结构表示如果名词前有序数词、形容词最高级或序数词、最高级本身做名词用,其后应不定式做定语。

  the ability to do

  该结构表示,形容词变了的名词后用不定式做定语。

  the need to do

  该结构表示由动词变来的名词后用不定式做定语。

  the way to do

  该结构表示,在一些特定的名词后面常用不定式做定语,应注意记忆,如means, reason, time, pressure, moment

  6) 熟记固定搭配,分清不定式与to加动名词

  其实容易产生不定式符号与介词混淆的只是为数不多的某些句式,只要平时注意积累即可。

  prefer doing something to doing something

  look forward to doing something

  be used to doing something (习惯于做某事)

  stick to doing something

  object to doing something/ have objection to doing something

  be opposed to doing something

  admit/confess to doing something

  I have no objection _____ your story again.(2000.6)

  A. to hear B. to hearing C. to having heard D. to have heard

  The man in the corner confessed to ________ a lie to the manager of the company.

  A. have told B. be told C. being told D. having told

  从出题人的心理来看,如果有to do something和 to doing something的对比项,一般答案是to doing something。

  7) 分清宾补的类别

  (1)感官动词后的宾补可以是

  doing, do, done, being done的结构,其中being done 只用于少数动词后面, 如find, smell, feel等。

  (2)have somebody do something 让某人做某事

  have somebody doing something 让某人一直做某事

  won't have somebody do something 不许某人做某事

  have something done 使某事被做

  have something + ving 让……一直……

  (3)catch,smell,keep,set,等只能接doing的结构,表示主动和正在进行。

  (4)leave somebody doing something 让某人一直做某事

  leave something undone 使某事只做了一半

  leave something to be done 事情有待于解决

  leave somebody to do something让某事做某事,表示将来

  (5)with somebody to do something宾补与宾语是主谓关系,表示将来。

  with somebody doing something 宾补与宾语之间是主谓关系,表示正在进行。

  with something to do 宾补与宾语间是动宾关系,表示将来,动作执行者在句中找的着。

  with something to be done宾补与宾语是动宾关系,表示将来,但动作执行者在句中找不着。

  with something done 宾补与宾语之间是动宾关系,表示完成。

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