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英语四级语法题考点经典总结

2013-03-29 20:17新东方四六级微信号

  2. 比较级测试特点

  在四级测试中,比较级属低档题,比较简单,考查范围大体有

  1)比较级形式的判断

  比较级考题在设计干扰项时一般都会有比较与非比较的选择,more than 与as/so …as的选择。如上面的③,⑤。

  2)比较级的修饰语

  比较级的修饰语包括修饰语的结构和修饰语的选用。

  结构指比较级修饰语须置于比较级之前,如①,②和④。

  修饰语的选用根据其所表达的意思而定,如⑥,⑩。

  3)比较级结构与其它结构的区别

  如⑧中形容词修饰语more than a month与比较级结构的区别,⑨中most 与the most的区别。

  3. 比较级应对策略

  1)如果选项中有比较级结构,则该题则为比较级考查题,可根据比较级使用规则选择正确答案。

  2)比较级修饰语应注意more than 或as…as结构之前。

  3)注意比较结构的完整性,要么是more than 结构,要么是as/so …as 结构,或是the more …., the more ….的句型。

  4)注意结构的各种变体:

  结构内出现名词时的结构可以是as old a car, as many /much/few/little …as。

  5)如果有比较 对象的选择应注意比较对象的一致性和互不包容性。如:

  His English is better than anyone else's in his class.

  三、 情态动词

  1. Test Yourself

  首先让我们分析以下近几年情态动词的考题:

  1) This box is too heavy, _________give me a hand?(1998.1)

  A .would you mind   B. would you please   C. will you like to   D. will you please to

  2) Research findings show we spend about two hours dreaming every night , no matter what we ____ during the day.(1999.1)

  A. should have done   B. would have done   C. may have done   D. must have done

  3)It was very kind of you to do the washing-up, but you____ it.(1998.6)

  A. mustn't have done   B. wouldn't have done   C. mightn't have done   D. didn't have to do

  4) If you don't like to swim, you ___ stay at home.(1995.1)

  A. should as well   B. may as well   C. can as well   D. would as well

  5) You ____ him so closely; you should have kept your distance.(2000.6)

  A. shouldn't follow   B. mustn't follow   C. couldn't have been following   D. shouldn't have been following

  6) You ___her in her office last Friday; she's been out of town for

  two weeks.(19996.1)

  A. needn't have seen   B. must have seen   C. might have seen   D. can't have seen

  7) The room is in a terrible mess; it ____ cleaned.(1996.6)

  A. can't have been   B. shouldn't have been   C. mustn't have been   D. wouldn't have been

  参考答案

  1) B 2) C 3) D 4) B 5) D 6) C 7) A

  2.情态动词的测试要点

  从以上例题可以看出,四级语法对情态动词的测试大体有以下几点。

  1)情态动词的基本用法,如①④⑤。

  2)情态动词 + 动词的完成形式的用法,如③⑥。

  3)情态动词的推测性用法⑦。

  3. 情态动词的应对策略

  情态动词的使用主要根据其所表达的含义。解题时注意以下几点:

  1)情态动词自身结构要正确

  结构包括情态动词自身的搭配和其后的连带成分。除ought外情态动词后接原形动词,测试中常将不同结构的动词置于一起设干扰项,如①。四个选项都与请求有关,但would you mind后接动名词,一般说would you like to而不是will you like to,will you please后用原形动词,答案是would you please?

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  2)注意情态动词推测性用法中各个情态动词使用的句型是否与题干句型一致。

  在情态动词的推测性用法中,must, can, may, might, could各用于不同的句型,应注意分辨。具体使用规律为:

  must只用于肯定句中。

  can/could不能用语肯定句中。

  may/might不能用语疑问句中。

  另外还应注意can't表示"不可能",may not表示"可能不"。

  考试时,如果有原因说明自己的猜测,一般应该must, can't用而不是may, may not。如:

  He can't have stolen the money; he is not such kind of person.

  Some pleasant thing must have happened to him. He is so excited.

  3) 注意推测性用法中谓语动词发生的时间。

  如果推测的为过去的事情,情态动词后则用完成形式。

  There must have been no one in, for nobody answered the phone.

  如果推测的是正在进行的事情,情态动词后则用动词的进行形式。

  They must be talking about something very secret.

  如果推测的是现在的状态等,情态动词后则用原形动词

  He must be badly ill. He looks so pale.

  如果推测的是将来发生的事情,情态动词后同样用原形动词,这时,情态动词只能是may/might。

  There may be a terrible storm in the following few days.

  4) 注意"情态动词+动词的完成形式"所表达的意思与题干意思是否相符。

  其它"情态动词+ 动词的完成形式"并不表示推测,而分别表示:

  could have done本来能够

  He didn't take part in the competition, he _______ though.

  A. won B. didn't win C. could win D. could have won

  needn't have done 本来没不要

  You ________. There was plenty of time.

  A. needn't hurry B. can't hurry

  C. mustn't have hurried D. needn't have hurried

  should/ought to have done 本来应该

  You _______ me earlier. I could have helped you.

  A. should tell me B. should have told

  C. need to tell D. needn't have told

  shouldn't/oughtn't to have done 本来不应该

  You ____ him so closely; you should have kept your distance.

  A. shouldn't follow B. mustn't follow (2000.6)

  C. couldn't have been following D. shouldn't have been following

  might have done 本来应该(用来表示一种责备)

  You ______ even though you were busy at that time.

  A. might help him B. must have helped him

  C. might have helped him D. should help him

  这类题在设计干扰项时,一般都会有情态动词推测性用法的涉及,同学们应注意分词上下文的逻辑和语意关系。

  5) 注意常用情态动词的基本句法和表意功能

  其它常用动词的用法,如shall表示"命令"、"威胁"、"许诺"或征求许可,may/might as well等,同学们都应多多注意其用法。

  四、 倒装

  倒装结构也是比较常见的一种句式,但考查的分量不大,考试都有哪些特点,如何应对,首先让我们一起来看一下近几年的考题。

  1.Test Yourself.

  1) I could not persuade him to accept it, ___ make him see the

  importance of it.(19995.1)

  A. if only I could not B. no more than I could

  C. or I could not D. nor could I

  2) Not until the game had begun ______at the sports ground.(2000.6)

  A. had he arrived B. would he have arrived

  C. did he arrive C. should he have arrived

  3) The organization had broken no rules, but _____ had it acted

  responsibly.(19996.1)

  A. neither B. so C. either D. both

  4) We have been told that under no circumstances ______ the telephone

  in the office for personal affairs.(1999.6)

  A. may we use B. we may use C. we could use D. did we use

  5) Only under special circumstances _____to take make-up tests.(1997.6)

  A. are freshmen permitted B. freshmen are permitted

  C. permitted are freshmen D. are permitted freshmen

  
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参考答案:

  1) D 2) C 3) A 4) B 5) A

  2.倒装测试范围和应对策略

  倒装分部分倒装和全部倒装,但从近几年的测试来看,重点是部分倒装。对于倒装句型同学们所应注意的就是在哪些情况下需要倒装,并且如何倒装。注意下面常见的倒装条件。

  1) 含有否定意味的词置于句首,主谓倒装。

  同学们应注意常用否定词语,如:hardly, barely, not, seldom, little, few, nowhere, never, at no time, by no means, in no way, in no case, under no circumstances, not until, not only… but also.., neither … nor…等。如果是在从句的句首,则从句倒装,如4)题。

  2) only + 状语置于句首,主谓倒装。

  Only后的状语可以是单词、短语,也可以是从句,要特别注意,从句并不倒装,而是主句倒装。如:

  Only when the war was over was he able to get happily back to work.

  3) Neither/So置于句首倒装,表示"也/也不……",如上面的2)3)题。

  4) There/here/then或做状语的地点副词和地点介词短语置于句首,要全部倒装。如:

  There stands a monument in the center of the square.

  Down came a light form the ceiling when he was walking across the floor.

  On the hay lay a wounded boy of not more than seventeen.

  5) 现在分词和过去分词可提至句首构成"分词+ be + 主语+其它+的倒装句式。如:

  Enclosed in the letter was a photo of a beautiful girl.

  Glooming in the test tube on the table was the mysterious something which they had been working so hard to find, radium.

  6) so/such…. that句型中,so + 形容词/副词提前,主谓倒装。如:

  So boring was the speech that the audience all left halfway.

  Such a noise did they make that the neighbors could not go to sleep at night

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