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4级语法试题的干扰项分析和答题技巧2

2013-03-28 22:16新东方四六级微信号

  2.非谓语动词解题策略

  1)正确判断非谓语动词

  这类题一般出现在独立主格结构中,如果在选项与句子之间没有连词,则说明,所选为独立主格结构,既名词或主格代词 + 分词。

  All things ______, the planned trip will have to be called off.

  A. considered   B. be considered   C. considering   D. having considered (1998.6)

  句子没有连词,说明所选结构不属于从句,那么就是独立主格做状语,根据动词与其逻辑主语之间的关系为动宾关系,答案应该是A.

  ____, a man who expresses himself effectively is sure to succeed more rapidly than a man whose command of language is poor.(1997.6)

  A. Other things being equal   B. Were other things equal C. To be equal to other things D. Other things to be equal

  做状语的可以是从句,但B的结构是虚拟条件,与这里不符,不表目的,C不对,不表将来,独立主格中非谓语动词不能是不定式,答案为A.

  4) 判断动名词复合结构的方式

  主语位置上,或动词、介词后的“名词代词 + 非谓语动词”,如果表示的是一个事件则是动名词复合结构,而不是“名词 + 定语。请看以下各例:

  He insisted on the windows _____ open while he was sleeping.

  A. left   B. being left   C. leaving D  。 be left

  insist on后不接从句,D可以排除。这里表达的是坚持要求“开着窗子睡觉”,所以应该是动名词复合结构,答案为B.

  The road __________ caused us to be for our work for half an hour.

  A. blocked   B. was blocked   C. blocking   D. being blocked

  做主语的表示上班迟到的原因,自然应该是“交通堵塞”,而不是“被堵的道路”,所以还是动名词复合结构,答案为D.

  The concerned mother thrilled at the news of his son _________ to college.

  A. had been admitted   B. admitted   C. having been admitted   D. having admitted

  消息表达的应该是个事件,说明不是“被录取的孩子”,介词of后不可能接从句,说明of后为动名词的复合结构,答案是C.

  3) 注意分析非谓语动词与其逻辑主语之间的关系

  正确判断非谓语动词与起逻辑主语之间的关系是正确选择非谓语动词形式的保证,不管是做什么成分的非谓语动词都体现以下特点:

  如果非谓语动词与逻辑主语之间是主谓关系,则用现在分词;

  如果非谓语动词与逻辑主语之间是动宾关系,则用过去分词;

  如果表示将来,则用动词不定式。

  这是非谓语动词运用的基本原则,然后再根据其不同的作用,掌握其更细的规则。如:

  (1)做定语时

  做定语的可以是动名词、分词或不定式。动名词做前置定语,所构成的大多为固定短语,四级考试一般不涉及。主要考查分词和不定式做定语。分词或不定式做定语一般做后置定语。

  ① The project ____ by the end of 2000, will expand the city's

  telephone network to cover 1,000,000 users.

  A. accomplished   B. being accomplished   C. to be accomplished   D. having been accomplished

  ② Hard work ____ on time will lead to better grades.(1995.1)

  A. done   B. be done   C. having done   D. to have been done

  ③ As early as 1647 Ohio made a decision that free, tax-supported schools must be established in every town _____ 50 households

  or more.(1998.1)

  A. having   B. to have  C. to have had   D. having had

  ④ Those _____ to the conference were mostly famous scientists.

  A. invited   B. were invited   C. inviting   D. to invite

  做定语的非谓语动词有一下几种形式:

  “doing 结构”:分词与中心词之间是主谓关系,表示正在进行,或状态。如③

  “being done结构”:分词与中心词之间是动宾关系,表示被动和正在进行,如:No one is to enter the building being repaired.

  “to be done结构”:不定式与中心词之间是动宾关系,表示将来和被动,如①。

  “done结构”:分词与中心词之间是动宾关系,表示被动、完成或一般,如②④。

  “to do结构”:不定式与中心词之间是主谓关系,表示将来。如:The professor to give us a speech tomorrow is said to have compiled many scientific works.

  完成形式不能做定语,包括分词的完成形式和不定式的完成形式。

  (2)做状语

  做状语的可以是不定式,也可以是分词。大体结构有:

  “doing 结构”:分词与句子主语为主谓关系,表示与谓语动词同时发生,或基本上同时发生,或是同时存在的状态。如:

  ______ the earth to be flat, many feared that Columbus would fall off the edge of the earth.

  A. Having believed   B. Believing   C. Believed   D. Being believed

  “done结构”:只要分词与句子主语间是动宾关系就可以用过去分词,可以表示完成,可以表示正在进行,也可以表示条件。如:

  _______ in this way, the situation doesn't seem so disappointing.

  A. Too look at   B. Looking at   C. Looked at   D. To be looked at (2000.1)

  He came in, followed by a group of reporters.

  “having done结构”:分词与句子主语是主谓关系,切发生在谓语动词之前。Having seen the film already, I declined his invitation to go to the cinema.

  “having been done结构”:该结构表示完成被动,即分词与句子主语之间是动宾关系,且发生在谓语动词之前。如:Having been showed many times, he still didn't understand the operation of the machine.

  “to do 结构”:这是不定式结构,在句中可以做目的状语,也可以做结果状语,但不定式动作总是发生在谓语动词之后。如:

  _______ a teacher in a university, it is necessary to have at least a master's degree.

  A. To become   B. Become   C. One becomes   D. On becoming

  表结果时一般为固定结构,如too …to…, enough to…。,或是表示出乎意料的结果,常可加构成only to的结构。如:

  I did what I could to comfort her only to make her cry even more. The next day, she woke to find herself in hospital.

  “being done结构”:该结构表示被动与正在进行,一般置于句首,表示原因。如:Being chased by some spies, he hid himself in the grass.

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