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4级语法的考查重点1

2013-03-28 22:16新东方四六级微信号

  英语是一个重结构的语言,要求句子必须符合句法结构的要求。用来规定句法结构的一些原则也就是我们常说的语法。英语中的语法条文比较多,总的来说可分为两大类,即词法和句法。具体说来,有情态动词的用法,形容词和副词的比较级用法,非谓语动词的用法,时态和语态,定语从句,状语从句,虚拟语气,名词性从句,倒装,强调与并列,主谓一致等。经过统计,95年1月到2000年6月,仅词汇和句法部分对语法的考查就有190题,占52.8%,其中以非谓语动词、虚拟语气、时态/语态、状语从句和定语从句考查最多。今天这一讲我们重点讲时态/语态、虚拟语气和各种从句,下一讲重点讲非谓语动词等。

  一、时态和语态

  英语中共有16个时态,最常用的是一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时、现在和过去进行时、现在完成时、过去完成时。但从95年以来的考题统计来看,15个时态考题中将来完成最多,占3题,时态考查的次序依次为将来完成时―― 过去完成时 ―― 现在完成进行时 ―― 现在完成时 ―― 一般将来 ―― 一般过去。先看以下各题:

  Test Yourself:

-----------------------------------------------

  1) My train arrives in New York at eight o'clock tonight. The plane I would like to take from there ___ by then.(1999.1)

  A. would leave   B. will have left   C. has left   D. had left

  2) She ought to stop work; she has a headache because she ____ too long.(2000.1)

  A. has been reading   B. had read   C. is reading   D. read

  3) “May I speak to your manager Mr. Williams at five o'clock tonight?”(2000.6)

  “I'm sorry. Mr. Williams ____ to a conference long before then.”

  A. will have gone   B. had gone   C. would have gone   D. has gone

  4) Great as Newton was, many of his ideas _____today and are being modified by the work of scientists of our time.(1997.1)

  A. are to challenge   B. may be challenged   C. have been challenged   D. are challenged

  5) Before the first non-stop flight made in 1949, it ____ necessary for all planes to land for refueling. (1996.6)

  A. would be   B. has been   C. had been   D. would have been

  6) He came back late, ____ which time all the guest had already left.(1999.6)

  A. after   B. by   C. at   D. during

  7) Until then, his family ______from him for six months. (1997.1)

  A. didn't hear   B. hasn't been hearing   C. hasn't heard   D. hadn't heard

  Explanation and Expansion

-----------------------------------------------

  A:参考答案:1)B 2)A 3)A 4)C 5)C 6)B 7)D

  B:评析:

  1) 以上各题都与完成时有关,完成时态用来表示到某一个时间为止已经完成的动作或某个状态/动作一直持续到某个时间。如果时间为过去,则用过去完成时,即表示过去的过去,如5)和7)。

  2) 如果表示到将来某个时间为止已经完成的动作,则用将来完成时,如1)和3),再如:

  It's reported that by the end of the month the output of cement in the factory ____ about 10%.

  A. will have risen B. has risen

  C. will be rising D. has been rising

  3) 而现在完成时表示到目前为止某个动作已经结束,对现在有影响,如4)。从下文中的“正在修改”可以判断人们已经对牛顿的观点提出挑战,而不是将要提出挑战或者可能提出挑战,由此可以判断应该用现在完成时。

  4) 与现在完成时不同,现在完成进行时则表示某个动作从过去持续到现在,并且仍在进行,如2)。头疼的原因是看书时间太长。本题可以用现在完成时,但不会是过去完成时,选项B不对,一般现在时表示经常发生的动作,与这里的头疼不能构成直接的因果关系,由于时间状语表示的是一段时间,有不可能是现在进行时,所以这里只能用现在完成进行时。

  C.完成时态使用注意事项

  ① 完成时的时间状语一般表示“到……为止”,以“by”短语居多。如果句中的时间状语是由by引出的短语或从句,谓语动词一般是用完成时态,如:

  By the time we got there, the fire had already been put out.

  We'll have completed the task by the time you come back.

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