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4级语法的考查重点2

2013-03-28 22:16新东方四六级微信号

  二、虚拟语气

  英语中的虚拟语气有4种,一种是条件句中的虚拟语气,一种是含蓄条件句中的虚拟语气,一种是名词性从句中的虚拟语气,还有一种是状语从句中的虚拟语气。其中虚拟时态的运用很大程度上和其所处的句型有关。95年以来,对虚拟语气的考查有28题之多,占词汇/语法总数的15.2%.下面我们也分四部分来看一下四级考试中虚拟语气的运用。

条件句中的虚拟语气


  Test yourself

  在我们分析虚拟语气的考查特点也应对策略之前,还上请同学们先做做一下以下各题:

  1) If I hadn't stood under the ladder to catch you when you fell, you ____ now. (1999.1)

  A. wouldn't be smiling   B. couldn't have smiled   C. won't smile   D. didn't smile

  2) ____ for my illness I would have lent him a helping hand. (19995.1)

  A. Not being   B. Had it not been   C. Without being   D. Not having been

  3) ______before we depart the day after tomorrow, we should have a wonderful dinner party. (1997.1)

  A. Had they arrived   B. Would they arrive   C. Were they arriving   D. Were they to arrive

  4) Jean doesn't want to work right away because she thinks that if she ____ a job she probably wouldn't be able to see her friends very often.(1996.1)

  A. has to get   B. were to get   C. had got   D. could have got

  5) _____ right now, she would get there on Sunday.(1996.6)

  A. Would she leave   B. If she leaves   C. Were she to leave   D. If she had left

  6) Had he worked harder, he ____ the exams.(1997.6)

  A. must have got through   B. would have got through C. would get through D. could get through

  7) If the whole operation _____ beforehand, a great deal of time and money would have been lost. (1999.6)

  A. was not planned   B. has not been planned   C. had not been planned   D. were not planned

  Explanation and Expansion

  A. 参考答案:1) A 2) B 3) D 4) C 5) C 6) B 7) C

  B. 评析

  ① 对于虚拟条件句中时态的运用,首先应该区分主从句的不同。从句中用过去时,过去完成时,或were to/should +原形动词,而主句中用would/could/might/should + 原形动词或动词的完成形式。

  ② 虚拟条件句有单一条件句,也有混合虚拟条件句,所以不能只根据从句与某一事实相反来判断主句就与该事实相反,同样,也不能想当然地认为主句与某一事实相反,从句也就与该事实相反。

  如1)从句与过去事实相反,而主句与现在事实相反。再如:

  If he weren't such a kind man, he wouldn't lent a hand to such people as you the other day. (从句与现在事实相反,主句与过去事实相反。)

  Were my friends not to come tomorrow, I wouldn't have bought so many foods. (从句与将来事实相反,主句与过去事实相反。)

  ③ 熟记主从句动词与不同事实相反时的时态运用规则。解题时根据句子所表达的时间概念确定与什么事实相反,然后采用相应的时态。

  如果与过去事实相反,从句中用过去完成时,主句中用would/should/could/might + have done的形式,如2)6)和7)。

  如果与现在事实相反,从句中用一般过去时,主句中用would/could/might/should + 原形动词,表示与正在进行的事实相反用would/might/could/should + be doing的结构,如1)。

  如果表示将来不可能实现的事情,从句中用过去时,或were to / should + 原形动词,以上3) 4) 5)表示的都属于这种情况。

  ④ if引导条件状语从句时,可以将were/had/should提至句首,省略if.考试时经常是将省略if的与含有if的选项并列,在这种情况下,应注意分清从句的时态,尽管多数情况下都是倒装的结构为正确选项。如2)3)5)。

  ⑤ If it weren't/hadn't been for …以及其倒装结构were it not for/had it not been for表示“如果不是……的话”

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