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4级语法的考查重点4

2013-03-28 22:15新东方四六级微信号

  四、状语从句

  状语从句也是四级词汇和句法部分考查的重点之一,95年至2000年6月共设考题20题,占10%强。就状语从句而言,主要是根据主从句的关系判断连词的使用。因此,在准备状语从句时,主要任务是弄清楚各种状语从句的连词。

时间状语从句的连词


  表示时间的连词有when, while, as, by the time, before, after, since, till/until, as soon as,有些名词短语也可以引导时间状语从句,如the moment, the instant, each time,有些是固定句型如:no sooner … than hardly/scarcely …when.在这些连词的使用中应注意

  ① as强调同时,也表示“一边……,一边……”,while表示主句动作发生在从句的过程之中,要求从句谓语动词为状态动词或持续性动词,when的使用则比较简单,相当于汉语的“当……时候”。如:

  Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your test scores, and this is especially true ____ it comes to classroom tests.

  A.when B.since C.before D.after (1996.1)

  四个选项都表示时间,但根据主从句间的关系可以判断答案 为A.

  ② 注意when的特殊句型

  下列句型中when连接的不是时间状语从句,但考试中却常与其它时间状语从句的连词一块出题。

  were/was doing something when …

  were/was about to do something when …

  had just done something when …

  四级考题中不乏对上述结构的考查,如:

  I had just started back for the house to change my clothes ___ I heard voices.

  A.as B.when C.after D.while (1997.6)

  I felt somewhat disappointed and was about to leave ___ something occurred which attracted my attention.

  A.unless B.until C.when D.while (1996.1)

  这类考题比较简单,只要同学们清楚这一句型,答案则自然可得。

  ③ 注意no sooner … than …。和hardly/scarcely …when句中的时态。

  ④ 注意not … until 中时间状语可以提前。如

  ____ quite recently, most mothers in Britain did not take paid work outside the home.

  A.Before B.Until C.From D.Since (1995.6)

  但只要同学们能够辨认not … until 的句法结构,答案也就显而易见。

  比较常见的提前方式是将not until…。提至句首,后面用肯定形式,主谓倒装。本题可以改成,Not until quite recently did most mothers in Britain take paid work outside the home.这时,句子采用主谓倒装结构,应注意。

  ⑤ 在对名词短语做连词引导时间状语从句时,常与名词构成的其它短语相区别。如:

  You see the lightening ___ it happens, but you hear the thunder later.

  A.the instant B.for an instant C.on the instant D.in an instant

  (1997.1)

  能够引导时间状语从句的是名词the instant,而不是由其构成的介词短语。

  ⑥ 注意含有时间状语从句的固定句型,如It won't be long before … 和It is …since两类句型。It won't be long before可以有三个变体,即:It was (not) + 一段时间 + before,It won't be + 一段时间+ before.如95年6月就有对此的考查:

  Scientists say it may be five or ten years ____ it is possible to test this medicine on human patients.

  A.since B.before C.after D.when

  2.原因状语从句的连词

  原因状语从句一般由because, since, as, now that, considering that, seeing that连接。对于表原因连词本身的区别考查相对较少,主要是与其它状语从句连词的对比。如:

  ① ____ you are leaving tomorrow, we can eat dinner together tonight.(1999.6)

  A.For B.Since C.Before D.While

  ② ____ that my head had cleared, my brain was also beginning to work much better.(1997.6)

  A.For B.Now C.Since D.Despite

  1) 从以上两题可以看出,首先,同学们要根据主从句的语意关系,确定是什么状语从句,然后在进行选择。

  2) 注意连词的结构,如2)为Now that的搭配。

  3) 注意for, because, since/as的区别。一般说来,for不表示原因,其所连接的是并列句,是一种解释说明,尤其是当用结果来反证原因时。如:

  He must have experienced something very unpleasant, for he looks so upset.

  You must try to rid yourself of your carelessness, for it often leads to errors.

  4) 注意引导原因状语从句的还可以是considering/seeing that,其用法与since/as相同。如:

  Considering that he is only a beginner, it is understandable for him to make such mistakes.

  Seeing that you have come, you may as well stay here for a few days.

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