M: Hi Lily, how's the new apartment?
W: It's okay.
M:What? How can it be just okaywhen last week you were thrilledabout the place and keptnosting photos of it online?
W:Well,【1】 last week whenfmoved in, the apartment seemed cozy, justthe right size forone person. But nowit just seems tiny, shabby and solitary.
M: Al that's the problem. You missyour roommates from university,don't you?
W: I'm going to sound like G idiot【2】because Iused to complain to youall the time about how crowded ourdormitory room was, and about allthe things they did to irritate me, likewatching movies late at night withoutheadphones, or talking loudly early inthe morning. But now Imiss themterribly.
M: Of course you do. That's perfectlynormal. When I got my first place,Iremember thinking I could ti wait tolive by myself and get away from myjuvenile roommates and all their annoyipghabits.【3】 But then began issing them and feelinglonely and thinking that our dormitory was like paradise. Even though there were six of us guys inone small room.
W: I thought it was just m who reltlike thiat.
M: Look, you lived at home with us.And then you had three roommates.And this is your first time living alone.So i hard But your first apartmentis a milestone in your life. And youshould celebrate it. Tell me about theapartment.
W: Actuaily, it's not bad. In fact, it'spretty adorable. Now that I have decorated it and it has et rjthing Ineed. I have a kitchen to cook in thebathroom al! to myself.And then anothes room with my bed at one endand the sofa, a small table and chairsat the C herend.
M: That does sound adorable, and【4】Ican't wait to see it. And neither canmom and dad.
Question 1: What was the woman'sfirst impression of the apartment?
Question 2: Why does the womansay she's going to sound like an idiot?
Question 3: What do we learn about the man when he left thedormitory to live on his own?
Question 4: What is the man say hecan't wait to do.
W: Welcome to our program book talk. Q5.ourgyest today is FrankJonesiditicbf our education system and the author of new book,How to reform our universitres.
M: Hello, Susan.
W: Frank, you support radicallychanging universities in America. Yes.
Q6.I believe that the purpose of highereduad grefo prepare young peopleto enter the workforce and that ourcurrent system fails to do this, We'reallocating too many resou disciplines that don't match the needsof employers.
W: I think your attitude to education isa bit cynical Frank. Surely the purpose of university is to prepareyoung people to participate fully incivic life rather than just to find wellpaid jobs.
M: Susan, many young graduates struggle to find any job let alone agood one. The job markc isgrim.Particulaniior students who studythe arts. I agree that it isn't easy foryoungr gegple to find work, but youpropose closing down alt departments that aren't directly
related to science and technology. Isthat rea lly the solution?
M: You're overstating my paint. Q7.My argument is that we need it use moer of our budget on areas like science and engineering. To do that, we needto take money from subjects likeliterature and music
W: Q8,But the arts have value. They'rean important part of our culture.studying literature or music or sculpture might not result in a job inthatae But it helps young people tothink about the world in a.deeperway, which makes them b citizens and makes fora better society.
M:l agree that the arts are valuable tosociety, but it's naive to think that notonly tk miost talented, but allstudents should study them at university level. The odds are verycompetitive, and most graduates willend up with a great deal of debt,obtaining a degree that has littlevalue on the job market.
Question 5. What do we learn from theconversation about the man?
Question 6. What does the manbelieve is the problem with the current American System of Higher Education?
Question 7. How should the educationbudget be allocated according to theman?
Question 8. What does the woman saythe arts can do?
Do you ever have the annoying feetingthat you don't have time to really thinkanymore? You're not alone.【Q9】A variet dtdrs have conspired to robus of time for reflectionourselves and our lives.
preoccupied minds are rarely Silent.The average person receives hundredsof texts and voice messages a day. Andholidays for many of us are action-packed weeks more likely full of familyactivities than opportunities fortranquility and contemplation.【Q10】Regular reflection,howe,underlies all great professionals. It's a prerequisite for you to recharge yourmental batteries. See things in a newlight and tap into your creativity.
Almost all of the great advisors that Ihave studied have found ways to getaway from it all and contemplate theirlife and work. Some researchers in thefield of creativity, in fact, believe thatinsight occurs during the reflection and relaxation that follows aCeriod of intense actvity.
Schedule your time for reflection aboutyourwork ora particular proiect you're engaged in. I usually biock outhalf an hour. Don't answer the phone.Push your papers to the side. Sketch,make lists, draw mind maps of ideasthat come to you. At the end, write down any emerging ideas.
When you're alone, stop worrying andthink. A lot of our downtime is spentworrying about troublesc ne thihgs inour lives or fantasizing aboat how we'dlike our lives to be.【Q11】 Revisitthings during moments of relaxationafter a periodnof intense work. This iswhenwe are the most creative.
Question 9 What do we learn about thefeeling that one doesn't heeitime tothink anymore?
Questica 10 What trait do all greatprofessionals share?
Question 11 What is some researchersbelieve is conducive to creative ideas?
had post offices The first opened in 1859 in asettlement founded by migrants searching for gold,Life could be unpredictable outwest. Gold failed to appear. Drought ruinedfarmers, and settlers clashed with_NativeAmericans.
On the settlement's location now stands asprawling University campus. Amid all thechanges, one feature remained constant: thepostal service. The maps tracing America'swestward expansion are telling in 1864 therewere few postat branches on land controlledby Native Americans, which still accountedfor most of the West. Over the next 25 years,post offices grew quickly. Colonization'of theWest could be regarded as a result of biggovernment rather than pioneers.【13】Asfederal subsidies and land grants temptedpeople into the deserts and plains, the postkept them connected.
In the mid-19th century, the Post OfficeDepartment was far from a centralizedbureaucracy. To keep up with migrationpatterns, postal services were added toexisting businesses.
【14】The federal government commissioned private wagons themail. Short term contracts were granted tolocal businessman to act as postmasters.These partnerships enabled the mail to quickly followmigrants helping knit togetherremote parts of the country.
Mr. Bellavance, a digital historian, wrote abook on the history of the US postal service.
【15】 He used the data science to analyzehistorical trends, Most strikingly he built anaccompanying website, complekw;Tinteractive maps.They show readers-howwithin a generation the postal service helpedcolonize a continent. These online interactivemaps illustrate the formative power of snailmail.
Q12 What does the passage say AboutColorado before it became a state?
Q13 How did the postal service contribute toAmerica's westward expansion?
Q14 What did the federal government:do tomeet the increasing demand for the postalservice in the West?
Q15 What did Mr. Bellavance do to study thehistory of the US postal service?
In last week's lecture, we discussed reasons whypeople forget things. This week we will discuss asurprising reason why we might remember somethings, anxiety. Think about something as simple asbuying a coffee. That may not seem like an experience that would make a deep impression onyour memory. But anxiety could change that. Q16.In fact, a new study suggests that people withhigher anxiety levels might remembertertain information better than people with lower anxietylevels.
That's because higher levels of anxiety may makepeople moresusceptible to negative feelings,
putting them in a more negative state of mind. Thatin turn, may make them able to better remembersome events. Let's take a closer look at that newstudy now. Q17. In this study, tseardhersstarted by giving 80 undergraduate students ananxiety test. The test measure the participantsanxiety levels over the proceeding two weeks.
Then, to test memory, the participants were showna series of neutral words one at a time. Some of thewords were printed onto photos of negative scenes,meaning images that could affect their emotionsnegatively, such as a photo of a car accident, or acemetery. The rest of the words were printed ontophotos of neutral scenes, such as a photo of a lakeor trees. Neutral words included words like table ordesk that don't elicit emotion.
Later, the participants were asked to think back tothe words they were shown earlier, which causedthem to reenter either a negative or neutral mindset. The participants were then presented withanother set of neutral words, and their memory ofthese new words was tested.
The researchers found that the new words presented to people in a negative mindset werebetter remembered by people with higher levels ofanxiety than those with lower levels of anxiety.
In other words, when highly anxious individualstook in otherwise emotionally neutral informationthat was presented to them, it became colored bytheir negative mindset, making them remember theinformation better. But these same effects were notseen in people with low levels of anxiety.
Q18. Previous studies havefound that extremeevels of anxiety such as those experienced bypeople diagnosed with an anxiety disorder can bequite detrimentalto memory and cognitive performan But the highly anxious people in thisstudy represent individuals who are managing theiranxiety and for whom anxiety is not. a seriousproblem.
Question 16. What does the speaker say the newstudy suggests?
Question 17. What did researchers do first in thenew study?
Question 18. What do we learn from previousstudies aboutlanxiety?
Over the past 20 years, the u ternet hasgradually become a dominant featureof our lives. It has changed how wecommunicate with each other. And ithas definitely transformed the way wedo business with each other:Marketinghas also changed in a number of ways.
For instance, in the past, consumershad to call a phone number and patiently wait on hold in order to getthe information they wanted.
[Q19]Today, they want the informationimmediately. They'll go to the company's sociaLmediapdc nifostcomments and questions expecting toreceive an immediate response. If theydon't get their questions answeredsoon they'll move on to anothercompany that will answer themquickly.
Marketing departments today need tofollow technological development. Forexample, this year smartphone issmarter than last years. s fariving cars are now on the road. Marketershave to do research on which techncingies:are coming into bsing,otherwise, they risk being leit behindin the virtual dust.
Marketing has also changed due to theimportance of video. People don't justwant to read text. They walt to watchthings happening. Companies now have to explore how they can use videoon a consistent basis to share information about their sinesses.Fortunately, it's extremely easy to
shoot something these days. All youneed is a smartphone.
But what's the result of all this? Shorteraitention spans? We aren't the samepeople that we were 20 yedi ago. Notonly have we grown accustomed togetting the information we want instantaneously, our attention spansare much shorter. If something doesn'tcaptulc ourattention within a few
seconds. We're on to the next piece ofcontent.[Q20]Marketers need to figureout ways to speak directly to the customer's emotions and they need tofigure out how to do that as quickly aspossible. Once people are emotionallyengaged, they'll stick with you.
If marketingi has changed this much inthe past 20 years, imagine what thenext 20 years will bring li ai recentsurvey, only 9% of marketers could saywith confidence that their marketingefforts were actually working. Theirconfidence is being shaken becausethe rules of the game change everyyear. That's why [Q21]it'simportant for marketers to pay attention to the latest technological devel and consider collaborating with technological innovators. That way,they'll be moving at the same pace asthe tech industry.
Question 19 What does the speaker sayabout today's consumers?
Question 20 How do marketers captureconsumers'attention as quickly aspossible?
Question 21 What does the speakersuggest marketers do to meet futurechalletes?
You might be surprised to learn that [Q22] thebenefits offriendships extend beyond people's
sociallifeand into their work, which is interestingwhen cd lili the extent to which people
sacrifice friendships, or at least the time they spendwith friends because of the exte edihairsthey'redevoting to work. Just last week, rwas remarking toa colleague that I'm content with only one socialengagement per week. But according to recentresearch, that's evidently not enough.
In an initial study of more than 700 respondents,scholars from an American university [Q23] analyzethe imrf thst:fiends as opposed to family haveon sel dem Jahd well-being. Friends came outsubstantially on top. That's because to be someone's mate is a voluntary act. Unlike familywho people rarely get to choose. The researchersfound that when people choose to cultivate andmaintain supportive friendships with an individual,it means that the person is valued and worthy oftheir limited time. Such sentiments of value andworthiness boost our self-esteem.
The second study comprised more than 300 participants. It proved that the better we feel aboutourselves, the more likely we will perform our jobconfidently and competently. This follow-up studyfound that [Q24] non-work friends even improvedpeople's job satisfaction. They have as much of animpact on how much they love their jobs, as do thefriends they have at work, despite not actuallybeing at our place of work. These types of friendstend to be our preferred outlet fo nni aboutwork-related mattersyThis is an avenue that maynot be available at the office.
So even though friendships can be easy to neglectwhen confronted-by pressures at work, or evenpressures at home, neglecting our friends can turnout to be harmful and counterproductive. That'swhy when determining how to create a better work-life balance, we need to consider not only how tobalance work and family demands, but also how tocultivate and sustain supportive friendships. It's for employees for flexible work arrangements. It's
irrelevant whether their need for a desired scheduleis due to say, parenting responsibilities, or a craving to hang out with their best mate. Whatmatters is the opportunity to engage in a nourishingactiyity outside of work. That will definitely have afollow-on effect at work.
Q 22 What does the speaker say is interesting?
Q 23 What did researchers from an Americanuniversity analyze in their initial study?
Q 24 What did the second study find aboutmon-work friends?
Q 25 What does the speaker suggest managers do?